Significant differences between the sexes persist in the economic and political fields. While progress has been made over the decades, women still earn on average 20% less in the labour market than men in the world. In 2018, only 24% of national parliamentarians were women, a slow increase of 11.3% in 1995. Two recent movements in countries with large Kurdish populations have introduced political equality of the sexes. One of them was the Kurdish movement in southeastern Turkey, led by the Party of Democratic Regions (DBP) and the People`s Democratic Party (HDP) since 2006 or earlier. The mayors of 2 cities and 97 cities are jointly led by a man and a woman, both called co-mayors. The party offices are also run by a man and a woman. Municipal councils were formed, which also had to be run jointly by a man and a woman. However, in November 2016, the Turkish government ruled harshly against the HDP and arrested ten of its members, including the party`s male and female co-leaders.  Some feminists have criticized the political discourse and policies used to achieve the aforementioned “progress” points on gender equality, with critics arguing that these equality strategies are superficial because they are not intended to challenge the social structures of male domination and are only aimed at improving the social situation of women in the social context of the subordination of women to men.
“ and that official public policies (such as state or international bodies) are questionable because they are applied in a patriarchal context and are controlled directly or indirectly by agents of a system that is mostly male.  One of the criticisms of equality policy, particularly in the European Union, is that it focuses disproportionately on policies that integrate women into public life, but are not aimed at really addressing deep repression in the private sector.  International development policy also includes clear commitments to effectively promoting gender equality. In the 2030 agenda, it is defined as a cross-cutting target in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG 5 also expressly calls on the international community to “achieve gender equality and strengthen all women and girls.” It is also a fundamental principle of German development policy: “equal rights, equal duties, equal opportunities and equal power between women and men.” The concept of equality between men and women and its level of performance in a given country is very complex because there are countries that in the past have a high level of gender equality in some areas of life, but not in others. [iv] [v] Caution is required when countries are ranked according to the level of gender equality they have achieved.  After Mala Htun and S.