China Myanmar Border Agreement

The wa State, which has cross-border civil, economic and military relations with China, is de facto autonomous and there is a modus vivendi between the Tatmadaw, the local name for the Myanmar army, and the United Wa State Army since 1989. During World War II, Burma Road was built across the border as an allied supply, as to Chinese troops fighting Japan. [3] In 1941, after Japan`s invasion of Burma, parts of Burma were ceded to Siam as The Sahrawi territory of Doem, giving China a common border with Thailand, but these territories were returned to Burma in 1946 after Japan`s defeat. [2] [4] [5] Talks between Burma and China (now under Communist rule) on the border began in 1954, with China interested in more effective control of the region, which was used as a base by Kuomintang troops. [2] On 28 January 1960, a contract was signed, demarcating most of the border, which was then concluded by a full delimitation contract signed on 1 October 1960, the two parties surrendered small areas along the border. [2] The following year, both sides demarcated the boundary on the ground. [2] The border begins in the north at three points from India, just north of the Diphu Pass, then passes little to the northeast, through the Nanmi Pass and Hkakabo Razi (5881 m), the highest mountain in Southeast Asia. It then turns to the southeast, heads south, then southwest through the Hengduan and Gaoligong mountains through a series of irregular lines. Near Ruili, the border briefly uses parts of the Taping and Nanwan rivers before heading southeast into the Shweli River, which it uses for some time to the northeast. The border then passes through mountainous terrain in a wide (though often confusing) southeast, sometimes with rivers (such as the Nanding and Nam Hka) used for short distances, before turning east into the southern stretch to the Mekong, then using this river up to the triple point with Laos. Mixed results: the border agreement between China and Myanmar has largely held, but it has been followed by a civil war. The three mountainous regions of Kachin, Wa and Shan, inhabited by ethnic and religious minorities in the country plagued by political and economic problems, are areas of Myanmar hit by insurgents with strong cross-border influence from China. Chinese state institutions, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA) and the regional government of the neighboring Chinese province of Yunnan, have actions with all stakeholders, including insurgent groups, across the border in a calibrated and sophisticated manner.

The uprisings are seen by the Burmese ethnic majority, who live in the plains of the Irrawaddy Delta and thus become the raison d`ĂȘtre of military domination in the power structure, as a threat to national security and unity. The simple drawing of the border does not end the centuries-old influence of neighbouring territories. The Burmese project for a stable nation-state may have resolved a border dispute with China, but it has failed to end the uncertainty. For a variety of reasons, the same is true for the border regions of China, near India. Burma was the first non-communist country to recognize the Communist-led People`s Republic of China after its founding in 1949. [9] Burma and the People`s Republic of China officially began diplomatic relations on 8 June 1950.